Parashah 19: T'rumah “Contribution”
Sh'mot “names” (Exodus) 25:1-27:19 Psalm 26
M'lakhim Alef (1 Kings) 5:12-6:13 2 Corinthians 9:1-15
by Messianic Teacher Dr. Daniel Boley
1 Adonai said to Moshe, 2 Tell the people of Isra'el to take up a collection for me – accept a contribution from anyone who wholeheartedly wants to give.
The idea of wholeheartedness here is expressed by two Hebrew words:
לֵב [lehv] meaning:
Strong's: the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything
BDB: the inner man, the mind, the will, the heart, understanding the inner part, the midst
the midst (of things)
the heart (of man)
the soul, the heart (of man)
the mind, knowledge, the thinking, reflection, the memory
inclination, resolution determination (of will)
the heart (used of moral character)
as the seat of the appetites
as seat of the emotions and the passions
as the seat of the courage
(This is part of the Shema from Deut 6:4-8 – we are to love the LORD with all our heart, soul, and might.)
נָדַב [nah-dahv] meaning:
Strong's: to impel; hence, to volunteer (as a soldier), to present spontaneously
BDB: to incite, to impel, to make willing
referring to someone whose heart has stirred them to action
as a name (Nadab) means “generous”
we see this idea echoed in this week's Brit HaDashah / New Testament passage in 2 Corinthians 9
3 The contribution you are to take from them is to consist of gold, silver and bronze; 4 blue, purple and scarlet yarn; fine linen, goat's hair, 5 tanned ram skins and fine leather; acacia-wood; 6 oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense; 7 onyx stones and other stones to be set, for the ritual vest and breastplate.
not just anything would do – these are specific offerings for specific purposes
8 They are to make Me a sanctuary, so that I may live among them.
“sanctuary” here is the Hebrew word מִקְדָּשׁ [mik-dahsh] meaning a sacred place, a holy place; used of the tabernacle, used of the temple
from קָדַשׁ [kah-dahsh]:
Strong's: to be (causatively, make, pronounce or observe as) clean (ceremonially or morally)
BDB: to consecrate, to sanctify, to prepare, to dedicate, to be hallowed, to be holy, to be sanctified, to be separate
“live” here comes from the word שָׁכַן [shah-khahn] meaning to reside or permanently stay (literally or figuratively); to settle down, to abide, to dwell, to tabernacle
“among them” comes from the word תָּוֶךְ [tah-vekh] meaning to sever; a bisection, i.e. (by implication) the centre: midst, middle
We are to prepare the LORD a holy place for Him to live in the middle of us (individually and corporately)
The Word (God's λόγος, [logos (Greek)] His most intimate thoughts, ideas, precepts) became a human being and lived (dwelled, tabernacled) with us and we saw His sh'khinah, the sh'khinah of the Father's only Son, full of grace and truth. John 1:14
Don't you know that you people are God's temple and that God's Spirit lives in you? 17 So if anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy him. For God's temple is holy, and you yourselves are that temple. 1 Cor. 3:16-17
Or don't you know that your body is a temple for the Ruach HaKodesh Who lives inside you, whom you received from God? The fact is, you don't belong to yourselves; 20 for you were bought at a price. So use your bodies to glorify God. 1 Cor. 6:19-20
The Tabernacle was, if you will, an extension of heart (vs 2). A special place prepared for the LORD do live / dwell / tabernacle within us. (Cf Rev 3:21)
9 You are to make it according to everything I show you – the design of the tabernacle and the design of its furnishings. This is how you are to make it.
The LORD has a specific and special design and purpose for each of us.
Should details matter to us? Two quick illustrations:
If we have a string of eleven numbers and we are one digit off, how important is it? How important is it if those eleven numbers are a phone number? Does one digit matter?
If we are drawing a straight line from point 'A' to point 'B' with a length of six inches and we are one degree off it doesn't matter very much. If point 'A' is our home town and point 'B' is Rota, (Rota is between Guam and Saipan, in the Northern Mariana Islands,) and we are one degree off, we will never find it. The longer the line, the more crucial the degree of detail.
Our walk with the LORD is a matter of a long, steady obedience. Details matter to God.
10 They are to make an ark of acacia-wood three-and-three-quarters feet long, two-and-a-quarter feet wide and two-and-a-quarter feet high. 11 You are to overlay it with pure gold – overlay it both inside and outside – and put a molding of gold around the top of it.
Acacia is a translation of the Hebrew שִׁטִּים [shi-tiym], transliterated shittim (plural of shittah) in the KJV.
Acacia, any of about 800 species of trees and shrubs comprising a genus (Acacia) in the pea family (Fabaceae) and native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly Australia (there called wattles) and Africa. (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/2525/acacia, accessed 11 Feb 15)
“ShiTTah ( = shinTah) is equivalent to the Arabic sant which is now the name of the Acacia Nilotica (NO, Leguminosae), but no doubt the name once included other species of desert acacias. If one particular species of indicated in the Old Testament it is probably the Acacia Seyal-the Arab. Seyyal-which yields the well-known gum-arabic This tree, which has finely leaves ular flowers, grows to a height of twenty feet or more, and its stem may sometimes reach two feet in thickness. The tree often assumes a characteristic umbrella-like form. The wood is close-grained and is not readily attacked by insects. It would be well suited for such purposes as described, the construction of the ark of the covenant, the altar and boarding of the tabernacle. Even today these trees survive in considerable numbers around 'Ain Jidy and in the valleys to the south.” (International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, acacia)
Acacia is a hard, dense wood, found in various (and sometimes desolate) places around the world, that was chosen by God for divine purposes, shaped by His artisans, covered with pure gold and filled with His Word and His presence. Sounds a lot like us!
“ overlay it with pure gold”
“gold” in these passages is the Hebrew word זָהָב [za-hav] meaning
Strong's: to shimmer; gold, figuratively, something gold-colored (i.e. yellow), as oil, a clear sky
BDB: gold as precious metal; as a measure of weight; used of brilliance, splendor (figurative)
“pure” in these passages is טָהוֹר [ta-hor] meaning
Strong's: pure (in a physical, chemical, ceremonial or moral sense)
BDB: clean (ceremonially, used of animals); pure (physically); pure, clean (morally, ethically)
from טָהֵר [ta-hār]:
Strong's: to be bright; i.e. (by implication) to be pure (physical sound, clear, unadulterated; Levitically, uncontaminated; morally, innocent or holy)
BDB: to be clean (physically, used of disease); to be clean ceremonially; to purify, to be clean morally, to make clean
“Gold” is not necessarily strictly Au, number 79, from the periodic table of elements we may think of, and “pure” is not necessarily without any other elements; though no less magnificent in there application here. Gold, purely without any other elements, is both soft and very heavy.
Things may be “purified” by their being totally dedicated to the LORD and His service, or by smelting. The gold is placed into a crucible which is then put into the fire. At the same time there is both a separation and a coming together that occurs. The gold comes together and sinks to the bottom of the crucible, and the impurities (dross) comes together and rises to where they can be removed by the goldsmith. Once the dross is removed, the crucible is placed in more intense heat and the process is repeated until the goldsmith can see a clear reflection of himself in the gold.
The LORD wants us to be totally dedicated to Him and His service, and to work the dross out of our lives until He can see an accurate reflection of Himself in us (and others can see Him reflected in our lives too).
Is 24K gold pure? November 16, 2001
Francis H. Brown, dean of the College of Mines and Earth Sciences at the University of Utah, provides the following answer.
Meanings of the word "gold" are manifold. The term is used to refer to the chemical element itself (its symbol is Au) and also to objects (often jewelry) that contain some gold but do not consist entirely of gold: a gold watch or ring, for instance. In the latter case, the amount of gold is described by the karat fineness of the alloy, so one sees marks such as 12K for 12 karats, and so forth.
The purity of gold is defined either in karats or fineness. A karat is 1/24 part of pure gold by weight, so 24-karat gold is pure gold. To find the percentage of gold in an object when the purity is stated in karats, multiply the number of karats by 100 and divide by 24. For example, 12-karat gold is 50 percent pure gold. Alternatively, the fineness is the amount of gold in parts per 1,000, so pure gold has a fineness of 1,000. A gold object containing 800 fine gold, or a fineness of 800, is 80 percent gold.
Alloys are mixtures of two or more metals, and many metals form alloys with gold. Most gold alloys are mixtures of gold, copper and silver. Gold alloyed with copper takes on a reddish color and is commonly 18K or less. If some of the copper is replaced with silver (keeping the gold content constant), the alloy takes on a yellow green hue or a rose color, depending on the mixture of copper and silver. So-called green or very pale yellow gold has been alloyed with silver but no copper. White gold used to have additions of nickel, copper and silver, but because of allergies, palladium is now used in place of nickel. Zinc is also used in gold alloys. (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-24k-gold-pure/, accessed 18 Feb 15)
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. … Gold is the most malleable of all metals; a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, or an ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become transparent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (radiant heat) shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, and in sun-visors for spacesuits.
Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower carat rating, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. Copper is the most commonly used base metal, yielding a redder color.
Eighteen-carat gold containing 25% copper is found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. Fourteen-carat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police and other badges. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium, although rarely done except in specialized jewelry. Blue gold is more brittle and therefore more difficult to work with when making jewelry.
Fourteen- and eighteen-carat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. White 18-carat gold containing 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper is silvery in appearance. Nickel is toxic, however, and its release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe.
Alternative white gold alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals, but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel. High-carat white gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver. The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects.
By 2014 the gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices. Demand in the first quarter of 2014 pushed turnover to $23.7 billion according to a World Gold Council report.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold, accessed 18 Feb 15)
• “overlay it both inside and outside”
◦ “inside” here is the Hebrew word מִבַּיִת [mi-ba-yit]
▪ מִ is a prefix generally meaning “from” (a shortened form of מִן [min] with the same meaning)
▪ בַּיִת has the primary meaning of “a house” indicating that this ark would house something. (A quick scan of the 2045 times בַּיִת is used in the Tanakh (Old Testament) shows its use as “house” or “household” about 2030 times. Of that, the vast majority is “house.”) BDB gives us other nuances of בַּיִת:
• a house: a house, a dwelling habitation; a shelter or an abode of animals; human bodies (figurative); used of Sheol; used of the abode of light and darkness; used of the land of Ephraim
• a place; a receptacle
• a home, a house as containing a family; a household, a family: those belonging to the same household; a family of descendants, descendants as organized body
• household affairs
• inwards (metaphorical)
• Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament: temple as an adverb
• on the inside as a preposition
◦ “outside” is the Hebrew word מִחוּץ [mi-khuts] (מִ being the preposition “from”):
▪ Strong's: to sever; properly, separate by a wall, i.e. outside, outdoors
▪ BDB: outside, outward, street, the outside
• Just thinking of how going “outside” our “house” would sever the family ….
• Like the acacia wood used in building the ark, we need the LORD to cover us with His purity “inside” and “outside” with all their various nuances – all the nooks and crannies and back closets of our lives. We need to allow the LORD to continually work in us and on us so that He can work through us.
• Interestingly the Hebrew phrase מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ (“inside and outside”) is only found in three places in the entire Tanakh – Ex 25:11 and 37:2 when talking about the ark of the Covenant, and Gen 6:4 when talking about the ark God commissioned Noah to build.
16 Into the ark you are to put the testimony which I am about to give you.
• This is reiterated in verse 21.
◦ “Testimony” here is clarified later in Deut 10:2, “I will inscribe on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke; and you are to put them in the ark.” (Also verse 5 here, 1 King 8:9, and 2 Chron 5:10.)
▪ The ark of the covenant was a symbol of God's presence among the Israelites a visual reminder that the one true God had made a covenant with them. It was so important to God that he described the arks construction before describing any other sacred object (Ex. 25:10—22). God revealed himself to his people at the ark of the covenant. It was often the place where God would meet with Moses and give commandments to his people. Each year on the Day of Atonement, the high priest would enter the Holy of Holies, where the ark was kept. There, God would appear in a cloud over the cover.
Inside the ark, the Israelites kept the Ten Commandments tablets. Although Christians have traditionally assumed that each tablet held a portion of the commandments, nothing in Scripture supports the idea of two partial tablets. From what we know about ancient covenants, it is more likely that all ten commandments were written on each tablet.
According to ancient custom, each covenant party would take a copy of their terms and store them in their most sacred place. By giving his copy of the commandments to Moses, God symbolically told his people that their most sacred place would also be his most sacred place: the ark of the covenant. Today, God chooses to reveal himself through the work of the Holy Spirit in each believer. His most sacred place is now our very own hearts and minds. Our thoughts, actions, and words should show others that the one true God is present among us. (http://followtherabbi.com/world/encyclopedia/article/the-ark-of-the-covenant, accessed 19 Feb 15.)
17 You are to make a cover for the ark out of pure gold; it is to be three-and-three-quarters feet long and two-and-a-quarter feet high.
• “A cover” here is often translated “mercy seat” but that is a deduction that limits our understanding. The Hebrew word is כַּפֹּרֶת [ka-po-reht] and refers specifically to this cover for the ark of the covenant. כַּפֹּרֶת is only used 27 times in the Tanakh in 22 verses (21 of those verses in the Books of Moses). It is the associated words, having the same root letters (כּפר), that give us its meaning, e.g.:
◦ כָּפַר [ka-far]:
▪ Strong's: to cover; figuratively, to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel
• Qal (verb form) to coat (to cover) with pitch
• Piel (verb form) to cover over, to pacify, to propitiate; to cover over, to atone for sin, to make atonement for; to cover over, to atone for sin and persons by legal rites
• Pual (verb form) to be covered over; to make atonement for
• Hithpael (verb form) to be covered
◦ כֹּפֶר [ko-fehr]:
▪ Strong's: a cover, i.e. (literally) a village (as covered in); (specifically) bitumen (as used for coating), and the henna plant (as used for dyeing); figuratively, a redemption-price
▪ BDB: the price of a life, a ransom, a bribe; asphalt, pitch (as a covering); the henna plant; a village
◦ כִּפֻּר [ki-pur]:
▪ Strong's: expiation (only in plural): -atonement
▪ BDB: atonement
• This cover over the ark was where the presence of All-Mighty God would be manifest in a special way to His people. Being that the ark housed the book of the testimony, we might say it was based on His written Word.
◦ In the Brit HaDashah (New Testament) we have a corollary in the Greek ἱλαστήριον [hi-las-terion], which is only used twice (once in Romans 3, and again in Hebrews 9):
For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; 25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; 26 for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus. (Rom 3:23-26, NASU)
Or as the Complete Jewish Bible puts it:
since all have sinned and come short of earning God's praise. 24 By God's grace, without earning it, all are granted the status of being considered righteous before him, through the act redeeming us from our enslavement to sin that was accomplished by the Messiah Yeshua. 25 God put Yeshua forward as the kapparah for sin through his faithfulness in respect to his bloody sacrificial death This vindicated God's righteousness: because, in his forbearance, he had passed over [with neither punishment nor remission] the sins people had committed in the past; 26 and it vindicates his righteousness in the present age by showing that he is righteous himself and is also the one who makes people righteous on the ground of Yeshua's faithfulness.
And behind the second veil, the part of the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of All, 4 which had the golden censer and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant; 5 and above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot not speak in detail. (Heb 9:3-5, NKJV)
Behind the second parokhet was a tent called the Holiest Place, 4 which had the golden altar for burning incense and the Ark of the Covenant, entirely covered with gold. In the Ark were the gold jar containing the man, Aharon's rod that sprouted and the stone Tablets of the Covenant; 5 and above it were the k'ruvim representing the Sh'khinah, casting their shadow on the lid of the Ark – but now is not the time to discuss these things in detail. (Heb 9:3-5, CJB)
18 You are to make two k'ruvim of gold. Make them of hammered work for the two ends of the ark-cover. 19 Make one keruv for one end and one keruv for the other end; make the k'ruvim of one piece with the ark-cover at its two ends. 20 The k'ruvim will have their wings spread out above, so that their wings cover the ark, and their faces are toward each other and toward the ark-cover.
• כְּרֻבִים [k'ruvim (transliterated cherubim)] is the plural of כְּרוּב [keruv (transliterated cherub)]
◦ a cherub, cherubim (plural), BDB: an angelic being: as guardians of Eden; as flanking God's throne; as an image form hovering over the Ark of the Covenant; as the chariot of Jehovah (Yahweh) (figurative)
▪ These are not the fat little babies with wings that comes up on a Google search. Rafael and other painters may have thought they were cute, but their images don't do these beings justice. Maybe they were trying to portray their innocence, sinlessness, or unfallen nature.
▪ Others picture angels as sweet, feminine creatures that accompany and watch over us.
• Biblically, by the way, these beings are masculine, e.g.:
כְּרוּב כְּרֻבִים cherub(s)
מַלְאָךְ מַלְאָכִים angel(s)
שָׂרָף שְׂרָפִים seraph(ims)
notice the characteristic masculine plural ending ־ִים (-im)
[where ־ represents any Hebrew consonant]
▪ Thinking of how fallen angels (demons) are normally portrayed, (huge, muscular, sinister, etc.) and how cherubs and other angels are often portrayed, you would think there's no contest here, the demons are just too powerful. It is a lie!
▪ Let's think about this for a minute. God, and God alone, is the Creator; satan is a created being and a counterfeiter. Demons are fallen angels; no more, no less, having strengths, abilities, capabilities, general characteristics belonging to all angels to varying degrees. (Just as all humans have certain characteristics, e.g. having an eternal soul housed within a body of flesh, having mind, emotions, will, capacity to choose, and able to be made spiritually alive in Messiah (Col 2:13).) If fallen angels are described and depicted as having size, strength, power, etc., it only makes sense that the angels that did not fall and remained faithful to their Creator possess at least those same attributes.
• Yes, fallen angels are powerful beings and a third of the angels fell in the rebellion satan led (Isa 14:12-15; Rev 12:4, 9), however, two-thirds of the angels remain faithful to the LORD and carry out His will, ministering, warring, and guarding. Godly, heavenly angels outnumber demons 2-to-1, and the heavenly angels have whatever power and authority the LORD equips them with in their fulfilling of His assignments.
◦ satan and his hoard have been defeated by Yeshua and stripped of their power (Col 2:15). The single tool they have at their disposal is deception (Jn 8:44).
• The LORD has always been, is, and will always be far greater, more powerful, more awesome, more majestic, etc., etc., etc., than any angel ever could be. He alone is Omniscient (All-Knowing), Omnipotent (All-Powerful), and All-Sufficient within Himself.
◦ Yet, He has chosen to love mankind; to redeem us, cleanse us, and fill us with His Holy Spirit as we come into a saving, life-giving relationship with Him through His unique Son Yeshua / Jesus. (Cf. e.g. Ps 8:4; 144:3; John 3:16)
◦ Empowered by the All-Mighty's Holy Spirit, we have been given authority to overcome all the power of the enemy (Luke 10:19).
21 You are to put the ark-cover on top of the ark. Inside the ark you will put the testimony that I am about to give you. 22 There I will meet with you. I will speak with you from above the ark cover from between the two k'ruvim which are on the ark for the testimony, about all the orders I am giving you for the people of Isra'el.
• The testimony was the written Word of God that went inside the special container made for it.
◦ We are also special creations made to house and carry the Word of God. As we “get into the Word of God,” and allow it to “get into us,” the LORD will use that as a means of meeting and speaking with us.
▪ However, without a personal relationship with the personified Word of God, Yeshua / Jesus, the written Word will not mean much to us and often will not make sense (1 Cor 2:14).
• My mom has always been one to keep personal “treasures” for years. In the mid late 1960s when dad was in Viet Nam he wrote to her almost every day. Since dad graduated from this life almost eight years ago now, part of mom's nightly routine is to read some of his love letters to her. Even though she has read each one countless times over the years, they continue to strengthen, comfort, and sustain her.
Someone else reading those letters might not think they make a lot of sense and they won't mean much to them. But after 60 years of marriage every letter means the world to mom and every one makes perfect sense. The difference, of course, is an intimate longstanding personal relationship with the author.
• Another way that the LORD communicates with us is by speaking directly to us. It must be kept in mind that whatever we think God may be saying to us, it must be in agreement with His written revelation of Scripture.
◦ 1 Cor 14:33 reminds us that “God is not a God of confusion but of peace ….”
▪ “confusion” here in the original Greek of the B'rit HaDashah (New Testament) is ἀκαταστασία [a-kata-stasia] meaning
• Strong's: instability, i.e. disorder
• Thayer's: instability, a state of disorder, disturbance, confusion
◦ The LORD is “the God of truth” (Ps 31:5; Isa 65:16), and His Word is truth (John 17:17).
◦ One of the primary laws of logic is the rule of self-contradiction: no logical train of thought, no logical argument, etc., can contradict itself.
▪ Since the LORD is the Creator of all, including logic, He will not, can not, contradict Himself.
• Every “revelation,” “word,” “message,” etc., from the LORD will always be in agreement with and never contradict His written Word.
◦ This is a major reason why every person needs to know what the Word of God says for him- or herself.
▪ Far too many people are Biblically illiterate, not knowing for themselves what His Word says, and taking preachers and teachers at their word, rather than checking it out to accurately judge what is being said.
▪ We all need to be like the Bereans of Acts 17:
10 But as soon as night fell, the brothers sent Sha'ul and Sila off to Berea. As soon as they arrived, they went to the synagogue. 11 Now the people here were of nobler character than the ones in Thessalonica; they eagerly welcomed the message checking the Tanakh every day to see if the things Sha'ul was saying were true.
• We know from our perspective that the LORD used Paul to write about half of His New Testament: he had to have his act together. Yet here are the Bereans checking out everything he is saying.
◦ The term “scholar” refers to someone who is learned in a particular field study. Although sometimes labeled as an archaic definition, “scholar” can also refer to someone who is a student in a particular field.
▪ The safest place for any Bible preacher or teacher to be is in a room full of Bible scholars!
▪ It is safer for him or her, and it is safer for everyone listening to them.
– Years ago when I was being trained to teach CPR our instructor-trainer told us, if you do CPR wrong you will mess up one person's chance for life. If you teach CPR wrong you will mess up a lot of people's chances for life. How much more so when we are dealing with Scripture, the Word of Life?