Parashah Studies

Noach - 02

Parashah 2: Noach “rest” (Noah)

B'resheet “in the beginning” (Genesis) 6:9-11:32 Psalm 29 Yesha'yahu “Yah has saved” (Isaiah) 52:13-55:5 Mattityahu (Matthew) 24:36-46

“Backstory”: Gen. 5:28 Lemekh lived 182 years and fathered a son, 29 whom he called Noach [restful]; for he said, “This one will comfort us in our labor, in the hard work we do with our hands [to get what comes] from the ground that Adonai cursed.”

Gen. 6:5 Adonai saw that the people on earth were very wicked, that all the imaginings of their hearts were always of evil only. 6 Adonai regretted that He had made humankind on the earth; it grieved His heart. 7 Adonai said, “I will wipe out humankind, whom I have created, from the whole earth; and not only human beings, but animals, creeping things and birds in the air; for I regret that I ever made them.” 8 But Noach found grace in the sight of Adonai.

• Noach in Hebrew (without vowel points, like we find in the Torah scrolls) is נח. Read right-to-left the two letters are the 'N' and 'kH' (a hard 'kH' or 'cH' as at the end of Bach). Using what is referred to in John 7:15 as the “study of letters,” we find that reversing the order of these two letters gives us the word חן: “grace” or “favor.” (Here the נ ['N'] looks different because it is at the end of a word. There are five Hebrew letters that change shape when they come at the end of a word: נ ← ן; מ ← ם; פּ ← ף; צ ← ץ; כּ ← ך.)

Genesis 6 9 Here is the history of Noach. In his generation, Noach was a man righteous and wholehearted; Noach walked with God. 10 Noach fathered three sons, Shem, Ham and Yefet.

• Some think that Noach was seen as righteous and wholehearted because of the wickedness of his generation, but this sounds like he is being graded on a curve. God's standards are the same and based on His character, not that of the world around us.

◦ Which points us back to the need for a Messiah

• Noach walked with God and is commended in the B'rit:

◦ Hebrews 11:7 By trusting (faith), Noach, after receiving divine warning about things as yet unseen, was filled with holy fear and built an ark to save his household. Through this trusting (faith), he put the world under condemnation and received the righteousness that comes from trusting (faith). (Emphasis original: bold red = emphatic; bold red italics = strongly emphatic.)

◦ 2 Kefa (Peter) 2:4-10 For God did not spare the angels who sinned; on the contrary, He put them in gloomy dungeons lower than Sh'ol to be held for judgment. 5 And He did not spare the ancient world; on the contrary, He preserved Noach, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, and brought the Flood upon a world of ungodly people. 6 And He condemned the cities of S'dom and 'Amora, reducing them to ashes and ruin, as a warning to those in the future who would live ungodly lives; 7 but He rescued Lot, a righteous man who was distressed by the debauchery of those unprincipled people; 8 for the wicked deeds which that righteous man saw and heard, as he lived among them, tormented his righteous heart day after day. 9 So the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials and how to hold the wicked until the Day of Judgment while continuing to punish them, 10 especially those who follow their old natures in lust for filth and who despise authority. … (Emphasis original)

• “righteous” here is the Hebrew word צַדִּיק [tsah-diyk] meaning:

◦ Strong's: just

◦ Brown-Driver-Briggs (BDB): just, lawful, righteous: just, righteous (in government); just, right (in one's cause); just, righteous (in conduct and character); righteous (as justified and vindicated by God); right, correct, lawful

▪ from צָדַק [tsah-dahk] meaning:

• Strong's: to be (causatively, make) right (in a moral or forensic sense)

• BDB: to be just, to be righteous ◦ in the Qal verb form: to have a just cause, to be in the right; to be justified; to be just (of God); to be just, to be righteous (in conduct and character) ◦ Niphal: to be put or made right, to be justified ◦ Piel: to justify, to make to appear righteous, to make someone righteous ◦ Hiphil: to do or bring justice (in administering law); to declare righteous, to justify; to justify, to vindicate the cause of, to save; to make righteous, to turn to righteousness ◦ Hithpael: to justify oneself

◦ It is from this that we get both the word and the concept of tsedakah:

Tzedakah [tsedaˈka] or Ṣ'daqah [sˤəðaːˈqaː] in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew: ‫צדקה‬‎; Arabic: ‫صدقة‬‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity, though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek) meaning righteousness, fairness or justice, and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive). In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism emphasizes are important parts of living a spiritual life. Maimonides says that, while the second highest form of tzedakah is to give donations anonymously to unknown recipients, the highest form is to give a gift, loan, or partnership that will result in the recipient supporting himself instead of living upon others. Unlike philanthropy or charity, which is completely voluntary, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation, which must be performed regardless of financial standing, and must even be performed by poor people. Tzedakah is considered to be one of the three main acts that can annul a less than favorable heavenly decree. (, accessed 13 Oct 15)

• “wholehearted” here is the Hebrew תָּמִים [tah-miym] meaning:

◦ Strong's: entire (literally, figuratively or morally); also (as noun) integrity, truth

◦ BDB: complete, whole, entire, sound: whole, sound, healthful; complete, entire (used of time); sound, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity; what is complete or entirely in accord with truth and fact (neuter adjective / substantive)

▪ from תָּמַם [tah-mahm] meaning:

• Strong's: to complete, in a good or a bad sense, literal, or figurative, transitive or intransitive

• BDB: to be complete, to be finished, to be at an end ◦ Qal: to be finished, to be completed; completely, wholly, entirely (as auxiliary with verb); to be finished, to come to an end, to cease; to be complete (of number); to be consumed, to be exhausted, to be spent; to be finished, to be consumed, to be destroyed; to be complete, to be sound, to be unimpaired, to be upright (ethically); to complete, to finish; to be completely crossed over ◦ Niphal: to be consumed ◦ Hiphil: to finish, to complete, to perfect; to finish, to cease doing, to leave off doing; to complete, to sum up, to make whole; to destroy (uncleanness); to make sound ◦ Hithpael: to deal in integrity, to act uprightly

◦ to use an American idiom, we might say that Noah was “sold out” to God

11 The earth was corrupt before God, the earth was filled with violence. 12 God saw the earth, and, yes, it was corrupt; for all living beings had corrupted their ways on the earth.

• Corrupt … corrupted. The root of the word used here is שָׁחַת [sha-khat]. The first two times שָׁחַת is used it is in the Niphal verb form; the third use is in the Hiphil.

◦ Niphal: to be marred, to be spoiled, to be corrupted, to be corrupt, to be injured, to be ruined, to be rotted ◦ Hiphil: to spoil, to ruin, to destroy; to pervert, to corrupt (morally); destroyer (participle)

◦ Some have wondered if this corruption included the animals, since they are “living beings,” and most of them were destroyed in the Flood.

▪ Though the LORD made the animals (Gen. 1:24-25), man alone was created in His image and likeness (Gen. 1:26-27), with mind, emotions, and will (intellect, feeling, volition) as well as the ability to think, reason, comprehend, and make choices. Mankind alone has a soul that needs to be saved; not animals, not plants.

▪ Though some people have used animals in their corruption, it is mankind that sinned and needs a Savior. They are the ones who have “corrupted their ways on the earth.”

• God “saw” – “saw” here is from the Hebrew word רָאָה [rah-ah], here in the Qal, imperfect.

◦ The Qal (קַל) is the basic verbal stem which indicates active voice (though some passive forms do exist) and the unnuanced type of action. For example: שָׁמַע (he heard)

▪ The imperfect conjugation is used to express incomplete action and is usually translated as present tense (I walk) or future tense (I will walk). The imperfect also denotes habitual or customary action – past, present, or future tense. The imperfect may also be rendered as one of several modal values (would, should, can, etc.) which are suggested by context and syntax. The Hebrew imperfect does not have tense apart from context and syntax – just like the Hebrew perfect. The Hebrew imperfect denotes incomplete action, whether in the past, present, or future. (, accessed 13 Oct 15) ▪ The perfect describes completed action (“I ran”) whereas the imperfect expresses incompleted [sp] or progressive action (“I was running”). This is called “aspect.” Hebrew often uses a form of the verb “to be” (or an adverb) to indicate sense of time. (, accessed 13 Oct 15)

◦ רָאָה means:

▪ Strong's: to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitive, intransitive and causative)

▪ BDB: (Qal) to see; to see, to perceive; to see, to have vision; to look at, to see, to regard, to look after, to see after, to learn about, to observe, to watch, to look upon, to look out, to find out, to see, to observe, to consider, to look at, to give attention to, to discern, to distinguish, to look at, to gaze at

13 God said to Noach, “The end of all living beings has come before me, for because of them the earth is filled with violence. I will destroy them along with the earth.”

• violence = חָמָס [kha-mas] = violence, wrong, cruelty, injustice

◦ This is the assessment of the perfect, unbiased, Judge Whose judgements are not based on the situation (as human “situational ethics” is), but on His own unchanging nature.

◦ Aspects of the fruit of sin.

▪ Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lewdness, 20 idolatry, sorcery, hatred, contentions, jealousies, outbursts of wrath, selfish ambitions, dissensions, heresies, 21 envy, murders, drunkenness, revelries, and the like; of which I tell you beforehand, just as I also told you in time past, that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. (Gal. 5:19-21, NKJV, emphasis original)

• Though these are bad things to be doing, note that Yeshua can redeem us. The problem is not as much with the person that does any or all of these things (because forgiveness and redemption is available in Jesus), but “those who practice such things.”

◦ 1 John 1:6 If we claim to have fellowship with Him while we are waling in the darkness, we are lying and not living out (practicing) the truth.

◦ 1 John 3:10 Here is how one can distinguish clearly between God's children and those of the Adversary: everyone who does not continue doing (practice) what is right is not from God.

▪ What we “practice” is what we repeatedly intentionally do (like “football practice,” or “baseball practice,” “a medical practice,” “a legal practice,” or the “practice of daily Scripture reading”).

◦ Proverbs 24:16 For though a righteous [man] falls seven times, he will get up again; it's the wicked who fail under stress.

◦ Though HaShem is extremely patient with us, His very nature of righteousness, purity, holiness, etc., demands the destruction of all things antithetical.

▪ If we choose to hold on to those things destined for destruction we should not be surprised if we face destruction along with them.

• I will destroy them along with the earth.

◦ I.e. along with the whole surface of the earth. Nothing in Scripture indicates the sea creatures were destroyed in the Flood, and none of them were on the Ark. The number of fossilized remains, however, does indicate that many sea creatures were caught in the violent tectonic activity of the Flood.

14 Make yourself an ark of gofer-wood; you are to make the ark with rooms and cover it with pitch both outside and inside.

• Some guess that this is what we know as cypress wood. Commentary with the Soncino Chumash states:

◦ It was a wood that rides lightly upon the water (Abraham Ibn Ezra, born 1092).

◦ This wood was ordered by God because He had decreed that they should be destroyed through gophrith 'brimstone' (according to an ancient legend the waters of the Flood were heated by subterranean fires of brimstone) (“Rashi” - Rabbi Shelomoh Yitschaki, [Solomon ben Isaac]).

• cover it with pitch both outside and inside

◦ Normally vessels were covered with pitch only on the outside. The order to coat the ark in- and outside may indicate the roughness of the initial flood waters.

◦ pitch here is the Hebrew כֹּפֶר [ko-pher, Strong's #3724] = ▪ a cover; ▪ (specifically) bitumen and henna; ▪ figuratively, a redemption-price

▪ found 17 times in the Tanahk its primary use is in something of value being exchanged for something else, e.g. a ransom or bribe

▪ it is related to the verb כָּפַר [ka-phar, Strong's #3722] =

• to cover (specifically with bitumen); • figuratively, to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel

• found 102 times in the Tanahk it has several applications dealing with ◦ atonement (e.g. Ex. 30:10, Num. 16:46) ◦ expiation (e.g. Num. 35:33) ◦ forgiveness, mercy (e.g. Deut. 21:8) ◦ pardon (e.g. 2 Chron. 30:18) ◦ appeasement (e.g. Pro. 16:14) ◦ removing sin (e.g. Isa. 27:9) ◦ annulling the covenant with death (e.g. Isa. 28:18) ◦ averting disaster resulting from continued sin (can't do it – e.g. Isa. 47:11)

◦ cf with כַּפֹּרֶת [ka-po-ret] = mercy seat (e.g. Ex. 25:17f)

◦ כַּפָּרָה [kapparah], according to Google Translate = noun: atonement, expiation, forgiveness, absolution, indulgence, substitute

◦ cf with kapparah from the Complete Jewish Bible's B'rit Hadashah: [NOTE: the 'p' is doubled in the transliteration of kapparah, and the 'b' in Shabbot, etc. because of the presence of the dagesh in the corresponding Hebrew letter]

▪ Rom. 3:25 God put Yeshua forward as the kapparah for sin through his faithfulness in respect to his bloody sacrificial death. This vindicated God's righteousness; because, in his forbearance, he had passed over [with neither punishment nor remission] the sins people had committed in the past

▪ Heb. 2:17 This is why he had to become like his brothers in every respect – so that he might become a merciful and faithful cohen gadol in the service of God, making a kapparah for the sins of the people.

▪ 1 John 2:2 Also, he is the kapparah for our sins – and not only for ours, but also for those of the whole world.

▪ 1 John 4:10 Here is what love is: not that we have loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the kapparah for our sins.

◦ make the ark with rooms

▪ G

od's design and His covering provided many rooms for the ones that were saved: cf. John 14:1-2

Don't let yourselves be disturbed. Trust in God and trust in Me. 2 In My Father's house are many places to live. If there weren't, I would have told you; because I am going there to prepare a place for you.

15 Here is how you are to build it: the length of the ark is to be 450 feet, its width seventy-five feet and its height forty-five feet.

• Along with the world's anti-God portrayal of “ancient man” being dumb and apish is the (sometimes well meaning) cartoon drawing of the ark; old Noah holding a shepherd's hook, and pairs of elephants and giraffes happily standing on deck. The Ark was so much more!

• The unit of measurement used here is אַמָּה [a-mah], translated as a “cubit.” Scripture shows the ark was the length of one-and-a-half professional sized (American) football fields [450 feet], half as wide [75 feet], and forty-five feet high. In other words, the size of a small ocean liner; larger than any other post-flood ship until the late 1800's. Remembering that the LORD is Omniscient (All-Knowing), and Eternal, and that He gave Noah his commission, it is reasonable to think that He would have also revealed to Noah the best design for this ship.

We should bear in mind too that these measurements are based on what is called a “standard cubit” of eighteen inches (a cubit being based on the length of a man's forearm from elbow to fingertip). Obviously this could vary. Significant ancient structures, such as the pyramids, used a “royal cubit” of about twenty inches. If this was closer to Noah's cubit, the ark would be about 50 feet longer, over 33 feet wider, and five feet higher.

• Evidence points to the time of the flood also being a time of global violent tectonic upheaval. By necessity the ark would have had to have built to withstand high winds and heavy seas: i.e. on the order of tsunamis and possibly up to hurricane force winds.

◦ Research proves pegged, double tongue-in-groove, hard wood construction could withstand such torque. A roughly flat-bottomed structure would keep it relatively stable. With a keel, even a slightly rounded bow, and a raised stern it would face into the wind, and therefore into the waves, all adding to the stability of the craft. Double pitching, as God's Word describes, again, adds to the seaworthiness of this ocean-going vessel.

▪ We need to bear in mind that “ancient man” was not dumb. “Modern man” may have different technology, (e.i. computers and cell phones,) but it was the near post-flood societies that built the pyramids. Modern man's idea of how they did it? Since we have been brain-washed into thinking the ancients were dumb, it must have been aliens!

• “Battelle Labs in Columbus, Ohio did an analysis of the metal [of this hammer head]. Strangely, the report observed 96.6% iron, 2.6% chlorine, and 0.74% sulfur, but oddly no carbon which is normally needed to harden iron. Metallurgists discussed this anomaly and indicated that an alloy of iron with chlorine cannot be made in earth's present atmospheric condition. A tomographic analysis of the hammer was done in 1992 at Texas Utilities. It showed the metal of the hammer was superior quality with no inclusions or irregularities … clearly the result of high-tech metallurgy, unavailable until the space age. Because the idea of a Golden Age before the Great Flood is deliberately ignored (just as Peter predicted) some modern geniuses have figured the logical explanation is that some alien from space landed here 135 million years ago and left his hammer behind.” (Dennis R. Petersen, Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation, Premier Edition; The Explorer's Guide to the Awesome Works of God, (El Dorado, CA: Creation Resource Publications, 2002), p 205.)

◦ With diligent study a person can become an expert in a particular field in two or three years. Antediluvian lifespans were measured in multiple hundreds of years. The potential for each person to become an expert in numerous fields was amazing.

16 You are to make an opening for daylight in the ark eighteen inches below its roof. Put a door in its side; and build it with lower, second and third decks.

• “an opening for daylight” is extrapolated from a single Hebrew word: צֹהַר [tso-har] =

◦ Strong's: light (i.e. window); dual double light, i.e. noon

◦ BDB: noon, midday; noon (as specific time of day), noon (in a simile as bright (as) happiness, a blessing); roof; the meaning is uncertain

◦ allowing light, and with it air, into the ark would serve a number of purposes, e.g.: ▪ morale boost ▪ ability to see better ▪ help an onboard garden to grow (photosynthesis) ▪ provide simultaneously for air exchange (useful for breathing, but also off-gassing methane from human and animal waste) ▪ using solar-tube type apparatuses light could be channeled into the depths of the ship

• “build it with lower, second and third decks”

◦ The word “decks” is not in the original, but is added to “aid clarity to the translation” and is therefore presumption.

▪ Given the height of the ship, it is possible that the “lower, second, and third” be between deck divisions (i.e. landings) so that there are a total of four inner-structure decks, each with an overhead clearance of nine to ten feet.

• It is also possible that these divisions were totally interior to the vessel: i.e. not including the hull of the ship, resulting in a total of five inner-structure floors, each with only slightly less overhead clearance.

◦ Yes, bull elephants can reach a height of 13 feet, giraffes 15, tyrannosaurus rex close to 20 feet, but where is it written that every deck of the ark ran solidly for the entire length and width of the vessel? Open sections here and there would allow for the few tall animals to have ample head room, make loading and unloading easier, and increase air circulation.

◦ Also, where is it written that these were adult animals? They simply had to be able to reproduce after the flood.

For some other interesting thoughts on the ark see • Noah's Ark; Thinking Outside the Box, by naval expert and mechanical engineer Tim Lovett; (Green Forest, AR; Master's Books, 2008), and • , accessed 14 Oct 15

17 Then I myself will bring the flood of water over the earth to destroy from under heaven every living thing that breathes; everything on earth will be destroyed. 18 But I will establish my covenant with you; you will come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife and your sons' wives with you.

• Some claim this was a localized flood held in place by the mountains surrounding the area, but this is not what the text says.

• Animals are very smart and will leave low lying areas for higher ground in times of flooding. Humans could do the same thing so there would be no need for an ark, this covenant, or this account for that matter.

19 From everything living, from each kind of living being, you are to bring two into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they are to be male and female. 20 Of each kind of bird, each kind of livestock, and each kind of animal creeping on the ground, two are to come to you, so that they can be kept alive. 21 Also take from all the kinds of food that are eaten, and collect it for yourself; it is to be food for you and for them.” 22 This is what Noach did; he did all that God ordered him to do.

• Obedience to God's Word brings salvation (on multiple levels).

Genesis 7 1 Adonai said to Noach, “Come into the ark, you and all your household; for I have seen that you alone in this generation are righteous before Me. 2 Of every clean animal you are to take seven couples, and the animals that are not clean, one couple; 3 also of the birds in the air take seven couples – in order to preserve their species throughout the earth.

• Noah didn't “go with the flow,” or “go along to get along,” but followed the L-RD even though he was the only one on earth.

◦ The righteous obedience of this one man saved his family, and all of mankind through them, as well as the animal kingdom.

◦ The Jerusalem Talmud says, “Whoever destroys a soul, it is considered as if he destroyed an entire world. And whoever saves a life, it is considered as if he saved an entire world.” (Sanhedrin 4:1 (22a),, accessed 01Nov16)

• Even at this early date there was a sense of clean and unclean.

• The greater number of clean animals may have provided a food source beyond dried food stores and what they grew on the voyage, and would also allow for Noach's post-flood offering without destroying a species they had just saved.

4 For in seven more days I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days and forty nights; I will wipe out every living thing that I have made from the face of the earth. 5 Noach did all that Adonai ordered him to do.

• “wipe out” here is the Hebrew word מָחָה [mah-khah] meaning:

◦ Strong's: properly, to stroke or rub; by implication, to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to

◦ BDB: (here in the Qal perfect) to wipe; to blot out, to obliterate; to blot out, to exterminate

6 Noach was 600 years old when the water flooded the earth.

• Genesis 5:32 says “Noach was 500 years old; and Noach fathered Shem, Ham, and Yefet.” The first verses of chapter six record some other facts and just how bad things on earth had gotten. Verse eight, “But Noach found grace in the sight of Adonai.”

◦ With the Biblical narrative being telescoped, there is no way of knowing exactly how much time passed between Noach's actual commission to build the ark and Genesis 7:6 when he was 600 years old and the flood came. Noach, his family, and possibly contractors and sub-contractors may have been working on the ark for 100 years. If numerous contractors, maybe only months.

▪ 2 Pet 2:5 says the LORD “did not spare the ancient world; on the contrary, He preserved Noach, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, and brought the Flood upon a world of ungodly people.”

• If not before, we can believe that after his commission to build the ark that the word of God's coming judgement and way of salvation was getting out and being spread. Even though the people did not believe the message, they heard and saw that these eight believed it enough to take radical step of faith.

7 Noach went into the ark with his sons, his wife and his sons' wives, because of the floodwaters. 8 Of clean animals, of animals that are not clean, of birds, and of everything that creeps on the ground, 9 couples, male and female, went in to Noach in the ark, as God had ordered Noach.

• “as God had ordered (/ commanded,) Noah”

◦ For the animals to come as they did, we know they had to have been commanded by the LORD as well (cf verse 16).

◦ These creatures obeyed their Creator: what a concept!

10 After seven days the water flooded the earth.

• Biblically the number seven represents completeness. Even to the end Adonai waited a complete amount of time for the people to repent and come to Him and His provision for salvation. There would have been plenty of room on the ark for a number of other people to come along; if they had only chosen to do so.

11 On the seventeenth day of the second month of the 600th year of Noach's life all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of the sky were opened. 12 It rained on the earth forty days and forty nights.

• Water came up as water came down, and the surface of the earth in the middle was flooded.

• “... All the fountains of the great deep were broken up ….”

◦ Global tectonic upheaval creating multiple tsunamis washing over the earth.

▪ This helps explain why some mountain ranges are smaller and older than others. I.e. the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States were pushed up earlier during the flood, then washed over and worn down more than the Rocky Mountains in the west.

• “... the windows of the sky were opened”

◦ “sky” here is הַשָּׁמַיִם [ha-shah-ma-yim]

▪ - הַ is the definite article “the”

▪ שָּׁמַיִם is “heavens,” or “skies” (translated in both the singular and plural)

• visible heavens, sky; as abode of the stars; as the visible universe, the shy, atmosphere, etc.; heaven (as the abode of God)

◦ “opened” here is from the Hebrew word פָּתַח [pah-tahkh] meaning:

▪ Strong's: to open wide (literally or figuratively); specifically, to loosen, begin, plough, carve

▪ BDB: (here in the Niphal) to be opened, to be loose, to be thrown open

• This may refer to the “canopy” that obviously covered the earth at that time, causing a higher atmospheric pressure with higher oxygen content.

◦ Oxygen and pressure are routinely used in hyperbaric medicine to promote rapid healing of numerous conditions: in other words, longer, healthier life for people, animals, and plants.

▪ Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), is the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure. The equipment required consists of a pressure chamber, which may be of rigid or flexible construction, and a means of delivering 100% oxygen. Operation is performed to a predetermined schedule by trained personnel who monitor the patient and may adjust the schedule as required. HBOT found early use in the treatment of decompression sickness, and has also shown great effectiveness in treating conditions such as gas gangrene and carbon monoxide poisoning. More recent research has examined the possibility that it may also have value for other conditions such as cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis, but no significant evidence has been found. In the United States the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, known as UHMS, lists approvals for reimbursement for certain diagnoses in hospitals and clinics. The following indications are approved (for reimbursement) uses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as defined by the UHMS Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee: Air or gas embolism; Carbon monoxide poisoning; Carbon monoxide poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning; Central retinal artery occlusion; Clostridal myositis and myonecrosis (gas gangrene); Crush injury, compartment syndrome, and other acute traumatic ischemias; Decompression sickness; Enhancement of healing in selected problem wounds; Diabetically derived illness, such as diabetic foot, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy; Exceptional blood loss (anemia); Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss; Intracranial abscess; Necrotizing soft tissue infections (necrotizing fasciitis); Osteomyelitis (refractory); Delayed radiation injury (soft tissue and bony necrosis); Skin grafts and flaps (compromised); Thermal burns. (, accessed 14 Oct 15)

13 On that same day Noach entered the ark with Shem, Ham and Yefet the sons of Noach, Noach's wife and the three wives of his sons accompanying them; 14 they, and every animal of every species, all the livestock of every species, every animal that creeps on the ground of every species, and every bird of every species – all sorts of winged creatures. 15 They went in to Noach in the ark, couples from every kind of living thing that breathes.

• The overall average size of the worlds animals is the size of a sheep, the vast majority being insects, so there was ample space for everything onboard the ark.

• Note that “every species” (or “kind”) was represented.

◦ The gene pool being much more pure at that time than it is now, taking a pair of each species of animal would insure its survival from the floodwaters. Prolific post-flood reproduction would have quickly repopulated the earth.

16 Those that entered went in, male and female, from every kind of living being, as God had ordered him; and Adonai shut him inside.

• The Creator commanded the created, and they obeyed and were saved.

• The LORD, through Noah, made a way for the world to be saved

◦ by the Father's plan, a righteous one, wood, and covering (kaphar in Hebrew; Gen 6:14).

◦ By the Father's plan, the Righteous One, wood, and His becoming our kapparah, Jesus provided a way for the world to be saved

▪ כָּפַר [ka-phar] means:

  • • Strong's: to cover (specifically with bitumen); figuratively, to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel • BDB: to cover, to purge, to make an atonement, to make reconciliation, to cover over with pitch • כַּפָּרָה [ka-pa-rah] (the dagesh in the central פּ indicates the letter is doubled): atonement, expiation, forgiveness, absolution, indulgence, substitute • a few related words: ◦ כָּפָר [ka-phar]: a village (as protected by walls) ◦ כֹּפֶר [ko-pher]:

  • ▪ Strong's: properly, a cover, i.e. (literally) a village (as covered in); (specifically) bitumen (as used for coating), and the henna plant (as used for dying); figuratively, a redemption-price ▪ BDB: the price of a life, a ransom, a bribe; asphalt, pitch (as a covering); the henna plant, the name of a plant (henna?); a village ◦ כִּפֻּר [ki-pur]: expiation; atonement (as in יוֹם כִּפֻּר : Day of Atonement) ◦ כְּפִיר [keh-phiyr]: a village (as covered in by walls); also a young lion (perhaps as covered with a mane)

• God put Yeshua forward as the kapparah for sin through His faithfulness in respect to His bloody sacrificial death. This vindicated God's righteousness; because, in His forbearance, He had passed over [with neither punishment nor remission] the sins people had committed in the past; 26 and it vindicates His righteousness in the present age by showing that He is righteous Himself and is also the One Who makes people righteous on the ground of Yeshua's faithfulness. (Rom 3:25-26)

◦ Jewish New Testament Commentary Kapparah for sin. Greek ilastērion [ἱλαστήριον] appears twice in the New Testament; at Heb 9:5 it means the “mercy seat” which formed the cover of the Ark of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies of the Temple, where the cohen hagadol entered once a year, on Yom-Kippur, to offer a sacrifice for the sins of the people (Lev 16). In the present verse it means “propitiation, expiation, atonement” and corresponds to Hebrew kapar, which has the same meaning in the Tanakh and has the root sense of either “cover” or “wipe clean.” These two root meanings both express what God does when He accepts expiation for sin: He covers the sin from His sight and / or wipes or washes it away. Non-Messianic Jews are hard pressed to give an answer to the question: “Now that the Temple has been destroyed, so that sacrifices can no longer be offered in the manner God requires in the Torah, what is the kapparah for sins?” The customary answer, that the sacrifices have been replaced by repentance, prayer and works of charity, finds no basis in the Tanakh, even though all three are worthy activities and the first two are surely essential elements of the atonement process. The correct answer to the question is given in this verse: Yeshua is the kapparah.

◦ This is why He had to become like His brothers in every respect – so that He might become a merciful and faithful cohen gadol in the service of God, making kapparah for the sins of the people. (Heb 2:17)

◦ Jewish New Testament Commentary The majority of the mitzvot [commandments] set forth in the written Torah deal with the sacrificial system, including the cahanut (priesthood), in which all the cohanim (priests) and the cohen hagadol [high priest] were members of the tribe of Levi (see 7:5-14). Thus it is very surprising, indeed revolutionary, to find that Yeshua, the Son of David, from the tribe of Judah, is spoken of as our cohen gadol. Much of the rest of the book [of Hebrews / Messianic Jews] is occupied with explaining how this can be and why it is necessary (see 3:1-6, 4:14-5:10, 6:19-10:23).

◦ Also, He [Yeshua] is the kapparah for our sins – and not only for ours, but also for those of the whole world. (1 John 2:2)

• Here is what love is: not that we have loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the kapparah for our sins. (1 John 4:10)

17 The flood was forty days on the earth; the water grew higher and floated the ark, so that it was lifted up off the earth. 18 The water overflowed the earth and grew deeper, until the ark floated on the surface of the water. 19 The water overpowered the earth mightily; all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered; 20 the water covered the mountains by more than twenty-two-and-a-half feet.

• Tectonic movement can quickly change the topography of any landscape. Mountains can be brought low and new mountains can raise out of the sea.

◦ Considering the topography of the ocean bottoms, it is easy to see that if the sea floors were raised, water would cover the entire surface of the earth. If before the flood the depths were not quite so deep, and / or the highest mountains we have were not so high, again water would cover the entire surface of the earth.

▪ Even in our times we have seen the birth of islands in Iceland, and hurricanes change entire coastlines. Actions described in Genesis 6 could easily change the whole earth. 21 All living being that moved on the earth perished – birds, livestock, other animals, insects, and every human being, 22 everything in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life; whatever was on dry land died. 23 He wiped out every living thing on the surface of the ground – not only human beings, but livestock, creeping animals and birds in the air. They were wiped out from the earth; only Noach was left, along with those who were with him in the ark.

• It is a popular myth that our actions only affect ourselves. In reality, even our “private” actions have a rippling effect that touches the lives of those around us.

• The combined sin of mankind caused the destruction of the earth and all that was on it.

24 The water held power over the earth for 150 days.

• This is further explained in 8:3, “It was after 150 days that the water went down.”

◦ After 150 days the water level started to go down. Genesis 8 1 God remembered Noach, every living thing and all the livestock with him in the ark; so God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water began to go down. • God remembered Noah …

◦ Not that the LORD ever forgot them, but that after these things, He brought them to mind. ▪ Can a woman forget her child at the breast, not show pity on the child from her womb? Even if these were to forget, I would not forget you. 16 I have engraved you on the palms of My hands, your walls are always before Me. • If such is the case with Tziyon, how much more for those in Yeshua?!

2 Also the fountains of the deep and the windows of the sky were stopped, the rain from the sky was restrained, 3 and the water came back from completely covering the earth. It was after 150 days that the water went down.

• With the wind the L-RD caused to pass over the earth (vs 1), in combination with stopping the water that was coming up and the water coming down, the flood waters on the earth went down.

4 On the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. 5 The water kept going down until the tenth month; on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen.

• In Syrian tradition, as well as in Quranic tradition, the specific summit of the "Mountains of Ararat" where Noah's ark landed is identified as Mount Judi in what is today Şırnak Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. In the Armenian tradition and Western Christianity, based on Jerome's reading of Josephus, the mountain became associated with Mount Masis (now known as Mount Ararat) the highest peak of the Armenian Highland, located in present-day Turkey. During the Middle Ages, this tradition has eclipsed the earlier association with Mount Judi even in Eastern Christianity, and the Mount Judi tradition is now mostly confined to the Islamic view of Noah. The "Mountains of Ararat" in Genesis clearly refer to a general region, not a specific mountain. Biblical Ararat corresponds to Ancient Assyrian Urartu (and Old Persian Armina) the name of the kingdom which at the time controlled the Lake Van region. The Book of Jubilees (7:1) specifies that the Ark came to rest on one of the peaks of the "Mountains of Ararat" called "Lubar". The Latin Vulgate says "requievitque arca [...] super montes Armeniae", which means literally "and the ark rested [...] on the mountains of Armenia", which was changed to "... mountains of Ararat" (montes Ararat) in the modern Nova Vulgata. In the book, Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus wrote: the ark rested on the top of a certain mountain in Armenia ... However, the Armenians call this place, αποβατηριον 'The Place of Descent'; for the ark being saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day. Now all the writers of barbarian histories make mention of this flood, and of this ark; among whom is Berossus. For when he is describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on thus: "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cordyaeans; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they take away, and use chiefly as amulets for the averting of mischiefs." Hieronymus the Egyptian also, who wrote the Phoenician Antiquities, and Mnaseas, and a great many more, make mention of the same. Nay, Nicolaus of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, hath a particular relation about them; where he speaks thus: "There is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the Deluge were saved; and that one who was carried in an ark came on shore upon the top of it; and that the remains of the timber were a great while preserved. This might be the man about whom Moses the legislator of the Jews wrote." (I.3.5-6, trans. William Whiston) Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several lengthy chapters of his History of the World (written c. 1616) to his argument that the "Mountains of Ararat" were anciently understood as including not only those of Armenia, but all the taller mountain ranges extending into Asia far to the east, and that Noah's Ark must have landed somewhere in the Orient, since Armenia is not actually east of Shinar. (, accessed 02Nov16)

6 After forty days Noach opened the window of the ark which he had built; 7 and he sent out a raven, which flew back and forth until the water had dried up from the earth.

• Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament Forty days after the appearance of the mountain tops, Noah opened the window of the ark and let a raven fly out (lit., the raven, i.e., the particular raven known from that circumstance), for the purpose of ascertaining the drying up of the waters. The raven went out and returned until the earth was dry, but without being taken back into the ark, as the mountain tops and the carcasses floating upon the water afforded both resting-places and food.

◦ Although with the tectonic action, tsunamis, torrential rains and ocean carnivores I find it doubtful any carcasses would still be floating on the surface of the water at this late point in time.

8 Then he sent out a dove, to see if the water had gone from the surface of the ground. 9 But the dove found no place for her feet to rest, so she returned to him in the ark, because the water still covered the whole earth. He put out his hand, took her and brought her in to him in the ark. 10 He waited another seven days and again sent the dove out from the ark. 11 The dove came in to him in the evening, and there in her mouth was a freshly plucked olive leaf, so Noach knew that the water had cleared from the earth. 12 He waited yet another seven days and sent out the dove, and she didn't return to him any more.

• Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament The dove, when first sent out, “found no rest for the sole of its foot;” for a dove will only settle upon such places and objects as are dry and clean. It returned to the ark and let Noah take it in again (vv. 8, 9). The second time it returned in the evening, having remained out longer than before, and brought a fresh (Taaraap freshly plucked) olive-leaf in its mouth. Noah perceived from this that the water must be almost gone, had “abated from off the earth,” though the ground might not be perfectly dry, as the olive-tree will put out leaves even under water. The fresh olive-leaf was the first sign of the resurrection of the earth to new life after the flood, and the dove with the olive-leaf a herald of salvation. The third time it did not return; a sign that the waters had completely receded from the earth.

by Messianic Teacher Dr. Daniel Boley

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