Parashah Studies

Vayeshev -03

Parashah 9: Vayeshev “and he settled”

B'reisheet “in the beginning” (Genesis) 37:1-40:23 Psalm 112 'Amos (Amos) 2:6-3:8 Mattityahu (Matthew) 1:1-6, 16-25

Genesis 37 1 Ya'akov continued living in the land where his father had lived as a foreigner, the land of Kena'an. 2 Here is the history of Ya'akov. When Yosef was seventeen years old he used to pasture the flock with his brothers, even though he was still a boy. Once when he was with the sons of Bilhan and the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives, he brought a bad report about them to their father.

• The idea that Yosef was considered “just a boy” at this time shows how modern western, and even suburban culture, can bleed through to our translations.

◦ The Hebrew word translated “boy” here is נַעַר [na-ar] meaning: a boy, a lad, a servant, a youth, a retainer; a young man

◦ Messianic Jewish scholar Alfred Edersheim (1825-1889) wrote in Sketches of Jewish Social Life The tenderness of the bond which united Jewish parents to their children appears even in the multiplicity and pictorialness of the expressions by which the various stages of child-life are designated in the Hebrew. Besides such general words as “ben” and “bat(h)” – “son” and “daughter” – we find no fewer than [eight] different terms, each depicting a fresh stage of life.

The following is extracted from this enlightening work:

Childhood Stage Masculine Form Feminine Form Example Scripture new born יֶלֶד [yeh-lehd] יַלְדָּה [yahl-dah] Ex 2:3, 6, 8 nursing baby יָנַק [yah-nahk] Isa 11:8; Ps 8:2 nursing & eating עוֹלֵל [o-lel] Lam 4:4 weaned one גָּמַל [gah-mahl] Ps 131:2; Isa 11:8; 28:9 toddler טַף [tahph] Est 3:13; Jer 40:7; Ezek 9:6 becoming firm & strong עֶלֶם [eh-lehm] עַלְמָה [ahl-mah] Isa 7:14 youth נַעַר [nah-ahr] נַעֲרָה [nah-ah-rah] Est 3:13 ripened one בַּחוּר [bachur] Isa 31:8; Jer 18:21; 15:8 * Though not all forms are found in Scripture, I think I got all the forms in the correct places. If you can help fill in this chart, with biblical references, I would appreciate it. Please let me know.

• The idea that Yosef used to “pasture” (more literally “was pasturing”) the flock comes from the Hebrew word רָעָה [ra-ah] meaning:

◦ to tend, to pasture (to shepherd; used of a ruler, used of a teacher [figurative]; used of people as a flock [figurative]; shepherd, herdsman [substantive] ◦ to feed, to graze (used of cows, sheep, etc. [literal]; used of an idolater, of Israel as a flock [figurative]

◦ in this verse in the Qal active participle form רֹעֶה [ro-eh]: tending, pasturing, shepherding, etc. ◦ Historian and biblical scholar Ray Vander Laan brings out that it was, and still is among the Bedouin of the Middle East, the youngest of the family that tended the flock. The boys and girls right with a small flock might be as young as eight years old. Older children might oversee several flocks from higher ground, with an adult making rounds and providing oversight to any number of flocks belonging to the family. (A wealth of information to enhance your Bible study within its original culture can be found at www.followtherabbi.com.)

◦ Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary (JFB): Joseph being seventeen years old, was a shepherd over the flock – he a lad, with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. Oversight or superintendence is evidently implied. This post of chief shepherd in the party might be assigned him either from his being the son of a principal wife, or from his own superior qualities of character; and if invested with this office, he acted not as a gossiping tell-tale, but as “a faithful steward” in reporting the scandalous conduct of his brethren.

3 Now Isra'el loved Yosef the most of all his children, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a long-sleeved robe.

• Possibly because Yosef was the “firstborn” of Jacob's chosen wife Rachel who had died (Gen. 35:19).

• … the son of his old age …

◦ Nachmanides explains that all of Jacob's children were born to him in his old age, therefore, “he chose Joseph as the son to look after him in his old age, and this naturally increased his affection for him.” (The Soncino Chumash, p. 230.)

▪ Joseph was the youngest for some time and would therefore be around “home” more as Jacob's age was showing more and more.

• … long-sleeved robe …

◦ many versions read “coat of many colors” or something similar.

◦ Sforno: The coat was a sign that Jacob had marked him out for leadership. (The Soncino Chumash, p. 230.)

▪ JFB: a long tunic with sleeves, worn by young men and maidens of the better class.

▪ Keil and Delitzsch: an upper coat reaching to the wrists and ankles, such as noblemen and kings' daughters wore

◦ כְּתֹנֶת פַּסִּים [keh-to-neh pa-sim]:

▪ כְּתֹנֶת = a tunic, an undergarment; a long shirt-like garment usually of linen

▪ פַּסִּים = plural of כַּס [pas] the palm (of the hand) or sole (of the foot); implication (plural) a long and sleeved tunic.

• This is the same phrase found in 2 Sam. 13:18: She [Tamar] was wearing a long-sleeved robe (this was how they used to dress the king's daughters who were virgins).

4 When his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they began to hate him and reached the point where they couldn't even talk with him in a civil manner.

• sibling rivalry can be a horrible thing and has driven some to murder (e.g. Cain and Able)

• “couldn't even talk with him in a civil manner”

◦ “couldn't” – they were not able (לֹא יָכְלוּ [lō yahk-rū])

◦ “even talk with him” – some translations render this “speak to him” – in the Hebrew is דַּבְּרוֹ [dahb-rō]

▪ The וֹ at the end is a direct object suffix meaning “him.”

▪ The root word דָּבַר [dah-vahr] means to speak, to declare, to converse, to command, to promise, to warn, to threaten, to sing. It is the verb form of the noun דָּבָר:

• דָּבָר [dah-vahr] means speech, a word, speaking, a thing: speech; a saying, an utterance; a word, words; business, occupation, acts, matter, case, something, manner (by extension).

◦ Both דָּבַר and דָּבָר are pronounced “dah-vahr” – the only difference being that with דָּבָר the second “ah” is held a microsecond longer.

• From looking at the two forms of this word it is easy to imagine that not only could these half-brothers not “even talk with him in a civil manner,” but that their actions went along with those words.

5 Yosef had a dream which he told his brother, and that made them hate him all the more. 6 He said to them, “Listen while I tell you about this dream of mine.”

• Joseph seems to have an excitement about his relationship with the LORD and His revelation to him that makes him want to share it; possibly expecting whoever he shared this dream with to be just as excited as he is.

◦ Not everyone is excited about a true relationship with God.

▪ Some will rejoice with you (e.g. Phil 2:17-18) ▪ Some will be jealous / envious (e.g. Matt 27:18; Acts 17:5) ▪ Some will scoff (e.g. Ps 1:1; Acts 17:32) ▪ Some will not care (e.g. Matt 13:18-19)

• This introduces the first of six dream related passages in the Joseph narrative each of which seems to be readily understood.

◦ This dream was readily understood by Joseph's brothers; ◦ Vs 9-10 by his brothers and his father; ◦ Gen 40:5-19 two dreams by Joseph; and ◦ Gen 41 again two dreams by Yosef.

◦ Gen 40:8 gives us a clue as to why these dreams could be so readily understood, “Don't interpretations belong to God?”: הֲלוֹא לֵאלֹהִים פִּתְרֹנִים in the Hebrew.

▪ הֲלוֹא [hah-lō] means “have not?” or “after all”

▪ לֵאלֹהִים [lā-lō-hiym] is “to God”

• ל is an inseparable prefix meaning “to,” or “for”

• אֱלֹהִים means “gods” in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative

▪ פִּתְרֹנִים [pit-rō-niym] is the plural of פִּתְרוֹן [pit-rōn] “interpretation” which comes from פָּתַר [pah-tahr] meaning to open up, i.e. (figuratively) interpret (a dream)

• According to the limited abilities of Google Translate various other forms of this word include:

◦ לִפְתוֹר [lif-tōr]: solve, resolve, figure out, unravel, interpret; and ◦ לְפַרֵשׁ [leh-phah-rāsh]: interpret, explain, elucidate, construe, gloss

▪ God is the One Who gives understanding (cf e.g. Dan 2:20-23), but also, ▪ as we better understand the Hebrew language He created and uses to communicate His love letters in the Tahnakh, as well as its figurative and symbolic meanings, the more easily we will understand

7 “We were tying up bundles of wheat in the field when suddenly my bundle got up by itself and stood upright; then your bundles came, gathered around mine and prostrated themselves before it.”

• “tying up bundles of wheat” in English comes from two related words in the Hebrew: מְאַלְּמִים אֲלֻמִּים [meh-ahl-mim ah-lū-mim], the root of each is אָלַמ [ah-lam] meaning

◦ Strong's: to tie fast; hence (of the mouth) to be tongue-tied ◦ BDB: (Niphal) to be dumb; to be bound: (Piel) binding (a participle)

• “prostrated themselves” here comes from the Hebrew word שָׁחָה [shah-khah] meaning

◦ Strong's: to depress, i.e. prostrate (especially reflexive, in homage to royalty or God)

◦ BDB: (here in the Hithpael) to bow down, to prostrate oneself before superior in homage, before God in worship, before false gods, before angel

8 His brothers retorted, “Yes, you will certainly be our king. You'll do a great job of bossing us around!” And they hated him still more for his dreams and for what he said.

• Yosef's brothers focused in on the idea that he would rule (מָלַךְ) and have dominion (מָשַׁל) over them

◦ Gen 42:6 they bowed down to Joseph ◦ Gen 42:24 Shim'om (Simeon) was bound and imprisoned ◦ Gen 43:26, 28 they bowed down before him ◦ Gen 43:33 they were תָּמַהּ [tah-mah]

▪ Strong's: to be in consternation ▪ BDB: to be astounded, to be stunned, to be amazed, to be dumbfounded

◦ Gen 44:16 they were speechless

9 He had another dream which he told his brothers: “Here, I had another dream, and there were the sun, the moon and eleven stars prostrating themselves before me.” 10 He told his father too, as well as his brothers, but his father rebuked him: “What is this dream you have had? Do you really expect me, your mother and your brothers to come and prostrate ourselves before you on the ground?”

• On the surface this appears impossible, Joseph's mother Rachel is already dead (Gen 35:19), so we know there has to be more to this dream.

• “sun” here is the Hebrew שֶׁמֶשׁ [sheh-mehsh] meaning the sun, but also sunrise, sun-rising, east, sun-setting, west (used of direction); the sun (as an object of illicit worship); openly, publicly (in other phrases); pinnacles, battlements, shields (as glittering or shining)

◦ With the idea of the שֶׁמֶשׁ paying homage to Yosef we can see the whole land, from east to west, openly submitting to him.

• “moon” here is the Hebrew יָרֵחַ [yah-rā-khah] means moon in the normal sense, but

◦ following “sun” it may also indicate the totality / completeness of Joseph's rule (i.e. both day and night).

◦ Another form of this same word, יֶרַח [yeh-rakh] also means the moon, and a month (lunar cycle). In this we are reminded that the moon has no illumination of its own, but reflects the light and brilliance of the sun. Yosef's rule will be affective, and affect people, both directly and indirectly.

• “eleven” is written as the combination of one [+] ten: אַחַד עָשָׂר [eh-khad ah-sar] (the word pair forms being different than the words individually):

◦ אֶחֶד is “one” and harkens to the “Sh'ma” beginning in Deut 6:4, reminding us that Joseph's rule is G-d-given

◦ עֲשָׂרַה is “ten” reminding us that as ten is exponentially greater than one, so God's rule and reign is exponentially greater than the rule and reign of any man

• “star” is כּוֹכָב [ko-khahv] which can refer to the blazing points of light seen in the night sky, but כּוֹכָב is also used in reference to brothers, youth, numerous progeny, personification, G-d's omniscience (figurative), and of the Messiah

• Yosef had a father, mother, and 11 brothers, so on the surface the meaning of this dream appears obvious. But considering that Rachel was already dead, that makes the obvious meaning impossible, and throws the fulfillment into the realm of the impossible: something the L-RD specializes in (cf Lk 1:37)!

11 His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the matter in mind.

• The word used here comes from the Hebrew קָנָא [kah-nah] meaning

◦ Strong's: to be (causatively, make) zealous, i.e. (in a bad sense) jealous or envious ◦ BDB: to envy, to be jealous, to be envious, to be zealous

• What here made Yosef's brothers “jealous” / “envious” of him?

◦ That he had a dream and none of them did? ◦ The type of dreams he was having? In Joseph's dreams he was ruling, in their dreams …. Did they have any dreams? ◦ That the L-RD was communicating with him?

• His father “rebuked” him (vs 10), but “kept the matter in mind.” The Hebrew says Isra'el שָׁמַר אֶת־הַדָּבָר [shah-mahr eht ha-dah-vahr]

◦ שָׁמַר is

▪ Strong's: properly, to hedge about (as with thorns), i.e. to guard; generally, to protect, attend to, etc.

▪ BDB: to keep, to guard, to observe, to give heed

◦ אֶת does not translate, but indicates that the direct object immediately follows

◦ הַדָּבָר

▪ הַ is the definite article prefix, in English “the”

▪ דָּבָר means

• Strong's: a word; by implication, a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially, a cause

• BDB: speech, a word, speaking, a thing: speech; a saying, an utterance; a word, words; business, occupation, acts, matter, case, something, manner (by extension)

◦ While Isra'el may have “kept the matter in mind,” which in English may be very casual or passive, there may have been an active “guarding” involved, keeping it in the forefront.

12 After this, when his brothers had gone to pasture their father's sheep in Sh'khem, 13 Isra'el asked Yosef, “Aren't your brothers pasturing the sheep in Sh'khem? Come, I will send you to them.” He answered, “Here I am.” 14 He said to him, “Go now, see whether things are going well with your brothers and with the sheep, and bring word back to me.” So he sent him away from the Hevron Valley, and he went to Sh'khem, 15 where a man found him wandering around in the countryside. The man asked him, “What are you looking for?” 16 “I'm looking for my brothers,” he answered. “Tell me, please, where are they pasturing the sheep?” 17 The man said, “They've left here; because I heard them say, 'Let's go to Dotan.'” Yosef went after his brothers and found them in Dotan.

• “After this,” some unspecified time later, so we are not told how old Joseph is at time nor how long relations with his brothers had been roiling.

• Apparently neither Isra'el nor Yosef suspected what was about to occur.

18 They spotted him in the distance, and before he had arrived where they were, they had already plotted to kill him. 19 They said to each other, “Look, this dreamer is coming! 20 So come now, let's kill him and throw him into one of these water cisterns here. Then we'll say some wild animal devoured him. We'll see then what becomes of his dreams!”

• Jealousy and envy (verse 11) can open the door to the adversary [satan (שָׂטָן) in Hebrew] to motivate them to the oppose the Author of Life by taking the life of another.

◦ Pilate knew the Herod-appointed high priest and his cronies had handed Yeshua over to him out of jealousy (Matt 27:18; Mk 15:10).

◦ … The cohen hagadol and his associates, who were members of the party of the Tz'dukim, were filled with jealousy. 18 They arrested the emissaries and put them in the public jail (Acts 5:17-18).

• Jealousy is just one symptom of being led by enemy of our souls.

◦ And it is perfectly evident what the old nature does. It expresses itself in sexual immorality, impurity and indecency; 20 involvement with the occult and with drugs; in feuding, fighting, becoming jealous and getting angry; in selfish ambition, factionalism, intrigue 21 and envy; in drunkenness, orgies and things like these. I warn you now as I have warned you before: those who do such things will have no share in the Kingdom of God! (Gal 5:19-21)

▪ It is important to understand that in the phrase “those who do such things,” the word “do” comes from the Greek word πράσσω [prasso] meaning to “practice,” i.e. perform repeatedly or habitually. Those who intentionally, repeatedly, habitually practice these types of things will have no share in the Kingdom of God, but there is hope for all of us:

• Some of you used to do these things. But you have cleansed yourselves, you have been set apart for God, you have come to be counted righteous through the power of the Lord Yeshua the Messiah and the Spirit of our God (1 Cor 6:11).

• You should be aware that the ransom paid to free you from the worthless way of life which your fathers passed on to you did not consist of anything perishable like silver or gold; 19 on the contrary, it was the costly bloody sacrificial death of the Messiah, as of a lamb without defect or spot (1 Pet 1:18-19).

• The Messiah redeemed us from the curse pronounced in the Torah by becoming cursed on our behalf; for the Tanakh says, “Everyone who hangs from a stake comes under a curse.” 14 Yeshua the Messiah did this so that in union with Him the Gentiles might receive the blessing announced to Avraham, so that through trusting and being faithful, we might receive what was promised, namely, the Spirit (Gal 3:13-14).

21 But when Re'uven heard this, he saved him from being destroyed by them. He said, “We shouldn't take his life. 22 Don't shed blood,” Re'uven added. “Throw him into this cistern here in the wilds, but don't lay hands on him yourselves.” He intended to rescue him from them later and restore him to his father.

• The eldest son of Le'ah may have had a special affinity for this eldest son of Rachel, or knew how hard it would be on Isra'el to lose Yosef.

◦ Le'ah conceived and gave birth to a son, whom she named Re'uven [see, a son!], for she said, “It is because Adonai has seen how humiliated I have been, but now my husband will love me” (Gen 29:32).

◦ The name Reuben comes from the imperative of “rah-ah” (רָאָה) and “ben” (בֵּן) and means “See, a son!”

◦ Now Isra'el loved Yosef the most of all his children, because he was the son of his old age … (Gen 37:3)

• Rashi points out that “as the eldest son he [Reuben] knew that he would be held responsible.” (The Soncino Chumash, p 234)

23 So it was that when Yosef arrived to be with his brothers, they stripped off his robe, the long-sleeved robe he was wearing, 24 and took him and threw him into the cistern (the cistern was empty; without any water in it). 25 Then they sat down to eat their meal; but as they looked up, they saw in front of them a caravan of Yishma'elim coming from Gil'ad, their camels loaded with aromatic gum, healing resin and opium, on their way down to Egypt. 26 Y'hudah said to his brothers, “What advantage is it to us if we kill our brother and cover up his blood? 27 Come, let's sell him to the Yishma'elim, instead of putting him to death with our own hands. After all, he is our brother, our own flesh.” His brothers paid attention to him. 28 So when the Midyanim, merchants, passed by, they drew and lifted Yosef up out of the cistern and sold him for half a pound of silver shekels to the Yishma'elim, who took Yosef on to Egypt.

For further investigation …...

Gen 40:9 a vine … גֶפֶן [geh-phehn] Strong's to bend; a vine, especially the grape; BDB a vine, a vine tree, used of Israel (figurative), used of stars fading at Jehovah's (Yahweh's) judgment (metaphorical), used of prosperity => cupbearer was lifted up and restored to his position

Gen 40:16 three baskets white … he was a baker so the inference is that it must have been white bread: white here is חֹרִי [kho-riy], also refers to a cave-dweller or troglodyte; from חוֹר [khor] which Strong's says means cavity, socket, den; BDB a hole or cave; GoogleTranslate defines חִוֵר (same root) colorless, pale, pallid, wan, pasty-faced, bloodless => all point toward deathlike appearance: baker was hanged

by Messianic Teacher Dr. Daniel Boley

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